In the Ottoman Empire time, there wasn’t any trace of the supreme court untill 19.th century. The first court of Appeal which was called “Divan-ı Ahkam-ı Adliye “ was founded during the reign of Abdülaziz on March 6, 1868. The first president of the supreme court was Ahmet Cevdet Pasha ,the governor of Halep who put great effort for its foundation. Two third of the members of the court were from muslim communities. The others were minority. (non muslim communities)
The name of the supreme court “Divan-ı Ahkam-ı Adliye” was changed to “Mahkeme-i Temyiz” by the act of courts foundation on 18.6.1879.
Mahkeme-i Temyiz transferred its case files to the Temprorary Appeal Committee (muvakkat temyiz heyeti ), which was founded on June 7, 1920 in the city of Sivas by the goverment of Turkish National Assembly that replaced the Otoman Empire upon its destruction.
The Temprorary Appeal Committee was moved from Sivas to Eskişehir on November 14 th,1923 by the act numbered 371 because Eskişehir had better transportation facilities due to its location on the intersection railroads. The committee’s name was modified as the Appeal Court (Temyiz Mahkemesi).
In 1935 The appeal court was moved to its new building built by the famous Australian arcitect Prof.Clemens Holzmeister in Ankara which was the capital of the newly founded Turkish Repuclic and where the other goverment buildings were. Compared with the buildings of the times the court building was quiet modern.
On January 10,1945 the name of the Appeal Court was changed to the High Supreme Court “YARGITAY” by the act numbered 4695.
The latest act, numbered 2797 for the High Supreme Court has been in use since February 4,1983.